Answer to the Fiendish Second Conway Puzzle, The Ten Divisibilities!

John_H_Conway_2005_(cropped)

Last month, in honor of mathematician and puzzly spirit John Horton Conway, we shared two of his favorite brain teasers and challenged our fellow PuzzleNationers to crack them.

Two weeks ago, we shared the solution to puzzle #1The Miracle Builders, and offered a few hints for puzzle #2, The Ten Divisibilities.

Now that we’ve heard from a few solvers who either conquered or got very close to conquering the second puzzle, we happily share both the solution and how we got there.


The Ten Divisibilities

I have a ten digit number, abcdefghij. Each of the digits is different, and:

  • a is divisible by 1
  • ab is divisible by 2
  • abc is divisible by 3
  • abcd is divisible by 4
  • abcde is divisible by 5
  • abcdef is divisible by 6
  • abcdefg is divisible by 7
  • abcdefgh is divisible by 8
  • abcdefghi is divisible by 9
  • abcdefghij is divisible by 10

What’s my number?

[To clarify: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, and j are all single digits. Each digit from 0 to 9 is represented by exactly one letter. The number abcdefghij is a ten-digit number whose first digit is a, second digit is b, and so on. It does not mean that you multiply a x b x c x…]

And here are the hints we offered to help:

-If you add all the digits in a number, and the total is divisible by 3, then that number is also divisible by 3.
-If the last two digits of a number are divisible by 4, then that number is divisible by 4.
-If the last three digits of a number are divisible by 8, then that number is divisible by 8.


The solution is 3816547290.

So, how do we get there?

First, we use process of elimination.

Any number divisible by 10 must end in a zero, so j = 0.

Any number divisible by 5 must end in a zero or a five, so e = 5 (because each digit only appears once).

That gives us abcd5fghi0.

But that’s not all we know.

If a number is divisible by an even number, that number must itself be even. So that means b, d, f, and h must all be even numbers (i.e. some combination of 2, 4, 6, and 8). That also means that a, c, g, and i must all be some combination of the remaining odd numbers (1, 3, 7, and 9).

That’s a lot of information that will come in handy as we solve.

So, where to next? Let’s look at one of those even-numbered spots.

We’ve been told that abcd is divisible by 4. But any number is divisible by 4 if the last two digits are divisible by 4. So that means cd is divisible by 4.

So, if c is odd, d is even, and cd is divisible by 4, that limits the possibilities somewhat. cd must be 12, 16, 32, 36, 72, 76, 92, or 96.

So d is either 2 or 6.

That will be helpful in figuring out def. And knowing def is the key to this entire puzzle.


One of the clues we offered in our last post was that if the sum of a number’s digits is divisible by 3, then that number is also divisible by three. We know abc is divisible by 3, so that means a + b + c is also divisible by 3.

And if something is divisible by 6, then it’s also divisible by 3, so a + b + c + d + e + f is divisible by 3.

Here’s where things get a little tricky. Since a + b + c + d + e + f is divisible by 3, and a + b + c is divisible by 3, then when you subtract a + b + c from a + b + c + d + e + f, the result, d + e + f would also be divisible by 3.

Why is that helpful? Because it means we can look at def instead of abcdef, and we know a lot about def right now.

d is either 2 or 6. e is 5. f is either 2, 4, 6, or 8. And the sum of d + e + f is divisible by 3.

So that gives us two possibilities to deal with, either 2 + 5 + f, where the sum is divisible by 3, or 6 + 5 + f, where the sum is divisible by 3.

Since each number is only used once, that’s six possible equations:

  • 2 + 5 + 4 = 11
  • 2 + 5 + 6 = 13
  • 2 + 5 + 8 = 15
  • 6 + 5 + 2 = 13
  • 6 + 5 + 4 = 15
  • 6 + 5 + 8 = 19

Only 258 and 654 have sums divisible by 3, so they’re our two possibilities for def.

We’ll have to try both of them to see which is the correct choice. How do we do that?

Let’s start with the assumption that def is 258.


That would mean our answer is abc258ghi0. We know b and h have to be even numbers, and only 4 and 6 are left as options. Since fewer numbers are divisible by 8 than by 2, let’s look at abc258gh.

One of the other hints we offered was that if the last three digits of a number are divisible by 8, then the whole number is divisible by 8.

So that means if abc258gh is divisible by 8, then 8gh is divisible by 8. That’s much more manageable.

So, f is 8, h is 4 or 6, and g is either 1, 3, 7, or 9. That gives us eight possibilities for 8gh: 814, 834, 874, 894, 816, 836, 876, and 896.

Dividing each of these by 8 reveals only two possible choices: 816 and 896. That means, in this scenario, h is 6, b is 4, and our number is a4c258g6i0.

What’s next? Well, remember that trick we did with abcdef before? We’re going to do it again with abcdefghi.

Any number divisible by 9 is divisible by 3. Our rule of sums tells us that a + b + c + d + e + f + g + h + i is also divisible by 3. And since a + b + c + d + e + f is divisible by 3, subtracting it means that g + h + i is also divisible by 3.

With 816 and 896 as our possibilities for fgh, that means our possibilities for ghi are 16i and 96i. That gives us the following possibilities: 163, 167, 169, 961, 963, 967, where the sum of our answer must be divisible by 3.

  • 1 + 6 + 3 = 10
  • 1 + 6 + 7 = 14
  • 1 + 6 + 9 = 16
  • 9 + 6 + 1 = 16
  • 9 + 6 + 3 = 18
  • 9 + 6 + 7 = 22

963 is the only one that works, which gives us a4c2589630. With only 1 and 7 remaining as options, our possible solution is either 1472589630 or 7412589630.

But, if you divide either 1472589 or 7412589 by 7 — which is faster than running every one of the 10 conditions through a calculator — neither divides cleanly. That means 258 is incorrect.


I know that was a lot of work just to eliminate one possibility, but it was worth it. It means 654 is correct, so our solution so far reads abc654ghi0.

And we can use the same techniques we just employed with 258 to find the actual answer.

We know b and h have to be even numbers, and only 2 and 8 are left as options. Again, since fewer numbers are divisible by 8 than by 2, let’s look at abc654gh.

4gh is divisible is 8. So, f is 4, h is 2 or 8, and g is either 1, 3, 7, or 9. That gives us eight possibilities for 4gh: 412, 432, 472, 492, 418, 438, 478, and 498.

Dividing each of these by 8 reveals only two possible choices: 432 and 472. That means b is 8, and our number is a8c654g2i0.

Now, let’s look at ghi.

With 432 and 472 as our possibilities for fgh, that means our possibilities for ghi are 32i and 72i. That gives us the following possibilities: 321, 327, 329, 721, 723, 729, where the sum of our answer must be divisible by 3.

  • 3 + 2 + 1 = 6
  • 3 + 2 + 7 = 12
  • 3 + 2 + 9 = 14
  • 7 + 2 + 1 = 10
  • 7 + 2 + 3 = 12
  • 7 + 2 + 9 = 18

Okay, that leaves us four possibilities for ghi: 321, 327, 723, and 729.

Stay with me, folks, we’re so close to the end!

Let’s look at our four possibilities:

  • a8c6543210 (79)
  • a8c6543270 (19)
  • a8c6547230 (19)
  • a8c6547290 (13)

Next to each number, I’ve placed the only digits missing in each scenario, two for each.

That means there are only 8 possible ways to arrange the remaining numbers:

  • 7896543210
  • 9876543210
  • 1896543270
  • 9816543270
  • 1896547230
  • 9816547230
  • 1836547290
  • 3816547290

So let’s do what we did last time, and divide each chain at the seventh number by 7.

  • 7896543 / 7
  • 9876543 / 7
  • 1896543 / 7
  • 9816543 / 7
  • 1896547 / 7
  • 9816547 / 7
  • 1836547 / 7
  • 3816547 / 7

Only one of the chains can be cleanly divided by 7, and it’s 3816547.

Which means the solution for abcdefghij is 3816547290.


I know this was a monster of a solve — it rivals our Brooklyn Nine-Nine seesaw puzzle solution in complexity — but it’s one that every one of our fellow PuzzleNationers are capable of puzzling out.

How did you do on this diabolical brain teaser, folks? Let us know in the comments section below. We’d love to hear from you!


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The Strange Mystery of Florida’s Coral Castle

coral castle entrance

[Image courtesy of Bitter Southerner.]

At the center of every great mystery, there is a puzzle. When people look at the pyramids of Egypt or the Moai statues of Easter Island, the puzzle at heart is obvious: how? How were these incredible objects created?

A similar, and no less puzzling mystery, can be found much closer to home for most Americans: the Coral Castle of Florida.

The-Coral-Castle-14

[Image courtesy of The Bohemian Blog.]

Less a castle and more a varied arrangement of stones into walls, shapes, doorways, and more, the Coral Castle is composed not of coral, but of oolite limestone blocks weighing literal tons. More than 1,000 tons of rock are part of the Coral Castle’s elaborate layout, which was assembled and expanded from 1923 to 1951.

Some of those monstrous stones are seamlessly joined into different structures. Others are so perfectly balanced that they can open like a revolving door with the gentlest push.

There is a sundial, a telescope, and even stone rocking chairs carved from single pieces of rock.

coral castle moon

[Image courtesy of Bitter Southerner,]

It’s an engineering marvel, to be sure, but what separates the Coral Castle from some of those other creations we mentioned above is the fact that we know who built the Coral Castle.

One man. Ed Leedskalnin.

coral castle tools

[Image courtesy of LiveScience.]

Using basic tools like picks, winches, ropes, and pulleys, Leedskalnin created the Coral Castle in secret, allowing visitors to ponder just how he was accomplishing this remarkable feat.

It’s particularly remarkable when you consider that Leedskalnin only had a fourth-grade education, having gone to work at a young age.

The-Coral-Castle-3

[Image courtesy of The Bohemian Blog.]

Of course, it’s also worth noting that Leedskalnin was a bit of a kook, claiming he had learned the secrets of the architects of King Solomon’s temples by studying books about the pyramids at the local library.

And yet, he created something amazing. So amazing, in fact, many people attribute the Coral Castle to supernatural efforts, not merely the engineering prowess, cleverness, and determination of a hardworking man.

coral castle stairs

[Image courtesy of LiveScience.]

Over the years, many peculiar theories have circulated surrounding the Coral Castle and Ed Leedskalnin. Unreliable eyewitnesses claimed to see coral blocks floating in the air like balloons while Leedskalnin worked at night.

Some believe Leedskalnin levitated the blocks with telekinesis or psychic powers, or by singing the stones into place. Others attribute the Castle to some sort of strange manipulation of gravity, antigravity, magnetism, ley lines, or earth energies. And, of course, alien technology has been floated as a possibility as well.

(Some people even believe there’s a hidden cipher lurking in several tracts written by Leedskalnin, just waiting to be found to reveal his secrets.)

coral castle chairs

[Image courtesy of Bitter Southerner.]

A friend of Leedskalnin’s wrote a book about the physics and engineering of the Coral Castle, entitled Mr. Can’t Is Dead. It’s one of many books that claims to explain how the Coral Castle came to be.

To me, the Coral Castle seems like one giant mechanical brain teaser, a math problem more about leverage and patience than the paranormal.

And yet, I can’t help but stare at some of these creations with awe. Maybe this one of those puzzles that’s better left unsolved.

The-Coral-Castle-1

[Image courtesy of The Bohemian Blog.]


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A Conway Puzzle Solution (And Some Hints for the Other Puzzle)

John_H_Conway_2005_(cropped)

Two weeks ago, in honor of mathematician and puzzly spirit John Horton Conway, we shared two of his favorite brain teasers and challenged our fellow PuzzleNationers.

So today, we happily share the solution for puzzle #1, The Miracle Builders.

I had a window in the north wall of my house. It was a perfect square, 1 meter wide and 1 meter high. But this window never let in enough light. So I hired this firm, the Miracle Builders, who performed the impossible. They remodeled the window so it let in more light. When when they’d finished the window was a perfect square, 1 meter high and 1 meter wide.

How did they do it?

Both windows are perfect squares, 1 meter wide and 1 meter high. So how can there be a difference in the amount of light?

The trick of this puzzle is in the description. Although the original window was a perfect square, the dimensions of the square aren’t 1 meter by 1 meter. No, it was a square placed like a diamond, with one corner directly above its opposite. So the 1 meter dimensions were the diagonals, not the sides.

All the Miracle Builders had to do was build a square window in the usual arrangement (two sides horizontal, two sides vertical) with dimensions of 1 meter by 1 meter. That creates a larger window (with a diagonal of √2m) and allows more light.

Very tricky indeed.


We had several solvers who successfully cracked the Miracle Builders puzzle, but there was less success with puzzle #2, The Ten Divisibilities.

So, in addition to the original puzzle, we’re going to post some solving hints for those intrepid solvers who want another crack at the puzzle.

The Ten Divisibilities

I have a ten digit number, abcdefghij. Each of the digits is different, and:

  • a is divisible by 1
  • ab is divisible by 2
  • abc is divisible by 3
  • abcd is divisible by 4
  • abcde is divisible by 5
  • abcdef is divisible by 6
  • abcdefg is divisible by 7
  • abcdefgh is divisible by 8
  • abcdefghi is divisible by 9
  • abcdefghij is divisible by 10

What’s my number?

[To clarify: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, and j are all single digits. Each digit from 0 to 9 is represented by exactly one letter. The number abcdefghij is a ten-digit number whose first digit is a, second digit is b, and so on. It does not mean that you multiply a x b x c x…]

Here’s a few hints that should help whittle down the possibilities for any frustrated solvers:

-If you add all the digits in a number, and the total is divisible by 3, then that number is also divisible by 3.
-If the last two digits of a number are divisible by 4, then that number is divisible by 4.
-If the last three digits of a number are divisible by 8, then that number is divisible by 8.

Good luck, and happy puzzling!


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Two Brain Teasers, Courtesy of Conway

John_H_Conway_2005_(cropped)

Last week, we penned a post celebrating the life and puzzly legacy of mathematician John Horton Conway, and several of our fellow PuzzleNationers reached out with their own thoughts or questions about Conway.

One recurring subject was about his love of puzzles and what kind of puzzles he enjoyed solving. So, naturally, I went hunting for some of Conway’s favorite puzzles.

As it turns out, Alex Bellos of The Guardian had me covered. Alex has a recurring puzzle feature on The Guardian‘s website where brain teasers and other mental trickery awaits intrepid solvers.

Years ago, Alex had asked Conway for suggestions for his column, and Conway offered up two tricky puzzles.

And now, I happily share them with you.


#1: The Miracle Builders

I had a window in the north wall of my house. It was a perfect square, 1 meter wide and 1 meter high. But this window never let in enough light. So I hired this firm, the Miracle Builders, who performed the impossible. They remodeled the window so it let in more light. When when they’d finished the window was a perfect square, 1 meter high and 1 meter wide.

How did they do it?


#2: The Ten Divisibilities

I have a ten digit number, abcdefghij. Each of the digits is different.

The following is also true:

  • a is divisible by 1
  • ab is divisible by 2
  • abc is divisible by 3
  • abcd is divisible by 4
  • abcde is divisible by 5
  • abcdef is divisible by 6
  • abcdefg is divisible by 7
  • abcdefgh is divisible by 8
  • abcdefghi is divisible by 9
  • abcdefghij is divisible by 10

What’s my number?

[To clarify: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, and j are all single digits. Each digit from 0 to 9 is represented by exactly one letter. The number abcdefghij is a ten-digit number whose first digit is a, second digit is b, and so on. It does not mean that you multiply a x b x c x…]


Did you solve one or both of these fiendish mind ticklers? Let us know in the comments section below! We’d love to hear from you.

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Celebrating the Puzzly Legacy of John Horton Conway

The worlds of puzzles and mathematics overlap more than you might think. I’m not just talking about word problems or mathy brain teasers like the Birthday Puzzle or the jugs of water trap from Die Hard with a Vengeance.

For twenty-five years, Martin Gardner penned a column in Scientific American called Mathematical Games, adding a marvelous sense of puzzly spirit and whimsy to the field of mathematics, exploring everything from the works of M.C. Escher to visual puzzles like the mobius strip and tangrams. He was also a champion of recreational math, the concept that there are inherently fun and entertaining ways to do math, not just homework, analysis, and number crunching.

And on more than one occasion, Gardner turned to the genius and innovative thinking of John Horton Conway for inspiration.

John_H_Conway_2005_(cropped)

[Image courtesy of Wikipedia.]

Conway was best known as a mathematician, but that one word fails to encapsulate either his creativity or the depth of his devotion to the field. Conway was a pioneer, contributing to some mathematical fields (geometry and number theory among them), vastly expanding what could be accomplished in other fields (particularly game theory), and even creating new fields (like cellular automata).

Professor of Mathematics, Emeritus, Simon Kochen said, “He was like a butterfly going from one thing to another, always with magical qualities to the results.” The Guardian described him in equally glowing terms as “a cross between Archimedes, Mick Jagger and Salvador Dalí.”

lifep

[Image courtesy of Cornell.edu.]

His most famous creation is The Game of Life, a model that not only visually details how algorithms work, but explores how cells and biological forms evolve and interact.

Essentially, imagine a sheet of graph paper. In The Game of Life, you choose a starting scenario, then watch the game proceed according to certain rules:

  • Any live cell with fewer than two live neighbors dies, as if by underpopulation.
  • Any live cell with two or three live neighbors lives on to the next generation.
  • Any live cell with more than three live neighbors dies, as if by overpopulation.
  • Any dead cell with exactly three live neighbors becomes a live cell, as if by reproduction.

The process plays out from your starting point completely without your intervention, spiraling and expanding outward.

It’s the ultimate if-then sequence that can proceed unhindered for generations. It is a literal launchpad for various potential futures based on a single choice. It’s mind-bending and simple all at once. (And you can try it yourself here!)

JHC-GOL-600x170px

[Image courtesy of Sign-Up.To.]

But that’s far from Conway’s only contribution to the world of puzzles.

Not only did he analyze and explore puzzles like the Soma cube and Peg Solitaire, but he created or had a hand in creating numerous other puzzles that expanded upon mathematical concepts.

I could delve into creations like Hackenbush, the Angel Problem, Phutball/Philosopher’s Football, Conway’s Soldiers, and more — and perhaps I will in the future — but I’d like to focus on one of his most charming contributions: Sprouts.

Sprouts is a pencil-and-paper strategy game where players try to keep the game going by drawing a line between two dots on the paper and adding a new dot somewhere along that line.

The rules are simple, but the gameplay can quickly become tricky:

  • The line may be straight or curved, but must not touch or cross itself or any other line.
  • The new spot cannot be placed on top of one of the endpoints of the new line. Thus the new spot splits the line into two shorter lines.
  • No spot may have more than three lines attached to it.

Check out this sample game:

sprouts

[Image courtesy of Fun Mines.]

It’s a perfect example of the playfulness Conway brought to the mathematical field and teaching. The game is strategic, easy to learn, difficult to master, and encourages repeated engagement.

In a piece about Conway, Princeton professor Manjul Bhargava said, “I learned very quickly that playing games and working on mathematics were closely intertwined activities for him, if not actually the same activity.”

He would carry all sorts of bits and bobs that would assist him in explaining different concepts. Dice, ropes, decks of cards, a Slinky… any number of random objects were mentioned as potential teaching tools.

Professor Joseph Kohn shared a story about Conway’s enthusiasm for teaching and impressive span of knowledge. Apparently, Conway was on his way to a large public lecture. En route, he asked his companions what topic he should cover. Imagine promising to do a lecture with no preparation at all, and deciding on the way what it would be about.

Naturally, after choosing a topic in the car, the lecture went off without a hitch. He improvised the entire thing.

Of course, you would expect nothing less from a man who could recite pi from memory to more than 1100 digits? Or who, at a moment’s notice, could calculate the day of the week for any given date (employing a technique he called his Doomsday algorithm).


Conway unfortunately passed away earlier this month, due to complications from COVID-19, at the age of 82.

His contributions to the worlds of mathematics and puzzles, not to mention his tireless support of recreational math, cannot be overstated. His work and his play will not soon be forgotten.

MAC31_BOOKS_COVERS_POST02

[Image courtesy of Macleans.]

If you’d like to learn more about Conway, be sure to check out Genius at Play: The Curious Mind of John Horton Conway by Siobhan Roberts.

[My many thanks to friend of the blog Andrew Haynes for suggesting today’s subject and contributing notes and sources.]


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Win a Shakespearean Lady’s Heart… With a Puzzle

shakespeare_2699766k

In the past, we’ve discussed some of the puzzly conspiracies and theories that surround the works of William Shakespeare. But we’ve never discussed the actual puzzle that appears in one of his plays.

No, we’re not talking about the clever wordplay that leads Macbeth to believe his reign is unassailable. In today’s post, we’ll look at the puzzle from The Merchant of Venice that held the fate of the heiress Portia locked away.

In the play, Portia’s father devises a brain teaser to prevent unworthy suitors from winning his daughter’s hand. It is most likely inspired by those mind ticklers where there are three guards or three doors to choose from, each with different conditions.

Any suitor seeking Portia’s hand must choose one of three caskets in the hopes of picking the one with Portia’s picture inside. If the suitor chooses the wrong casket, he leaves empty-handed.

The prospective suitor’s only hints are the words on each of the three caskets.

  • On the gold casket: “Who chooseth me shall gain what many men desire.”
  • On the silver casket: “Who chooseth me shall get as much as he deserves.”
  • On the lead casket: “Who chooseth me must give and hazard all he hath.”

9f9a2aca0fbe4e17307fe5b560f180d6

[Image courtesy of Pinterest.]

The puzzle is less about being tricked by logic or wordplay than it is carefully reading what is right in front of you. It’s about presentation, assumption, and intention.

Not only is the gold casket the most ostentatious, but it stabs at the heart of “what many men desire.” It represents the fallacy of choosing something for beauty and aesthetics alone, warning the wrong-headed suitor that “all that glitters is not gold.”

The silver casket isn’t as eye-catching, but the inscription reveals how presumptuous the suitor is. After all, “as much as he deserves” implies the hand of Portia, and it’s presumptuous in the extreme to assume that he was automatically worthy of Portia’s hand for the simple act of picking a casket.

The lead casket is the least attractive physically, but the most insightful. The inscription of the lead casket is all about one’s intentions. The suitor who chooses it is promising to not only be generous and work hard — to give all he hath — but be willing to sacrifice for the hand of Portia.

The suitor who chooses the lead casket — and finds the picture of Portia — doesn’t do so out of trophy-hunting vanity or grossly overestimating himself, he does so by pledging to devote everything he is and has to the task at hand… being worthy of Portia.

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[Image courtesy of Pinterest.]

Of course, when it comes to both the play and Portia’s feelings on the matter, it works out nicely that the suitor who chooses the lead casket is also the man Portia loves.

It does raise the question, though, of what happens to the three caskets when Portia is married. Hopefully her father gave them to her as a wedding gift. Or at least melted them down into something more manageable. Imagine trying to pay your bills with caskets made of precious metals.


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